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The past tense of to be

Posted by technician on 18th septembre 2015

To Be - Affirmative

Subject

To Be

Examples

I

was

I was tired this morning.

You

were

You were very good.

He

was

He was the best in his class.

She

was

She was late for work.

It

was

It was a sunny day.

We

were

We were at home.

You

were

You were on holiday.

They

were

They were happy with their test results.

To Be - Negative Sentences

The negative of To Be can be made by adding

not after the verb (was or were).

Subject

To Be

Examples

I

was not

I was not tired this morning.

You

were not

You were not crazy.

He

was not

He was not married.

She

was not

She was not famous.

It

was not

It was not hot yesterday.

We

were not

We were not invited.

You

were not

You were not at the party.

They

were not

They were not friends.

To Be - Negative Contractions

The can make negative contractions of the

verb To Be in the Past tense by joining the

verb (was or were) and n’t (e.g. were not =

weren’t). We don’t make a contraction of the

subject and the verb (e.g. I was).

I was not tired this morning.

OR

I wasn’t tired this morning.

You were not crazy.

OR

You weren’t crazy.

He was not married.

OR

He wasn’t married.

She was not famous.

OR

She wasn’t famous.

It was not hot yesterday.

OR

It wasn’t hot yesterday.

We were not invited.

OR

We weren’t invited.

You were not at the party.

OR

You weren’t at the party.

They were not friends.

OR

They weren’t friends.

To Be - Questions

To create questions with To Be, you put the

Verb before the Subject .

Affirmative

You

were

happy.

Subject

Verb

Question

Were

you

happy?

Verb

Subject

Affirmative

Question

I was late

Was I late?

You were sick.

Were you sick?

He was surprised.

Was he surprised?

She was from Italy.

Was she from Italy?

It was a big house.

Was it a big house?

We were ready.

Were we ready?

You were early.

Were you early?

They were busy.

Were they busy?

Before the verb you can also have a WH-

Question word (Why, Who, What, Where etc.)

Were you happy? Yes, I was.

Why were you happy? Because I was promoted

at work.

To Be - Short Answers

In spoken English, we usually give short

answers in response to questions.

Was he from Japan? - Yes, he was (from

Japan). The last part (from Japan) is not

necessary. We use shorts answers to avoid

repetition, when the meaning is clear.

Question

Short Answers**

Short Answers

Was I late?

Yes, you were.

No, you weren’t.

Were you sick?

Yes, I was.

No, I wasn’t.

Was he surprised?

Yes, he was.

No, he wasn’t.

Was she from Italy?

Yes, she was.

No, she wasn’t.

Was it a big house?

Yes, it was.

No, it wasn’t.

Were we ready?

Yes, we were.

No, we weren’t.

Were you early?

Yes, we were.

No, we weren’t.

Were they busy?

Yes, they were.

No, they weren’t.

Posted in Langue anglaise pour les débutants/English language for | No Comments »

Simple present tense

Posted by technician on 15th septembre 2015

Simple Present Tense

English Grammar Rules

The simple present tense in English is used to

describe an action that is regular, true or

normal.

We use the present tense:

1. For repeated or regular actions in the

present time period.

I take the train to the office.

The train to Berlin leaves every hour.

John sleeps eight hours every night during

the week.

2. For facts.

The President of The USA lives in The White

House.

A dog has four legs.

We come from Switzerland.

3. For habits.

I get up early every day.

Carol brushes her teeth twice a day.

They travel to their country house every

weekend.

4. For things that are always / generally true.

It rains a lot in winter.

The Queen of England lives in Buckingham

Palace.

They speak English at work.

Verb Conjugation & Spelling

We form the present tense using the base

form of the infinitive (without the TO).

In general, in the third person we add ‘ S ‘ in

the third person.

Subject

Verb

The Rest of the sentence

I / you / we / they

speak / learn

English at home

he / she / it

speak s / learn s

English at home

The spelling for the verb in the third person

differs depending on the ending of that verb:

1. For verbs that end in -O, -CH, -SH, -SS, -

X, or -Z we add -ES in the third person.

go – goes

catch – catches

wash – washes

kiss – kisses

fix – fixes

buzz – buzzes

2. For verbs that end in a consonant + Y , we

remove the Y and add -IES .

marry – marries

study – studies

carry – carries

worry – worries

NOTE: For verbs that end in a vowel + Y , we

just add -S .

play – plays

enjoy – enjoys

say – says

Negative Sentences in the Simple Present

Tense

To make a negative sentence in English we

normally use Don’t or Doesn’t with all verbs

EXCEPT To Be and Modal verbs (can, might,

should etc.).

Affirmative: You speak French.

Negative: You don’t speak French.

You will see that we add don’t between the

subject and the verb. We use Don’t when the

subject is I, you, we or they .

Affirmative: He speaks German.

Negative: He doesn’t speak German.

When the subject is he, she or it , we add

doesn’t between the subject and the verb to

make a negative sentence. Notice that the

letter S at the end of the verb in the

affirmative sentence (because it is in third

person) disappears in the negative sentence.

We will see the reason why below.

Negative Contractions

Don’t = Do not

Doesn’t = Does not

I don’t like meat = I do not like meat.

There is no difference in meaning though we

normally use contractions in spoken English.

Word Order of Negative Sentences

The following is the word order to construct a

basic negative sentence in English in the

Present Tense using Don’t or Doesn’t .

Subject

don’t/doesn’t

Verb*

The Rest of the sentence

I / you / we / they

don’t

have / buy

eat / like etc.

cereal for breakfast

he / she / it

doesn’t

* Verb: The verb that goes here is the base

form of the infinitive = The infinitive without

TO before the verb. Instead of the infinitive To

have it is just the have part.

Remember that the infinitive is the verb before

it is conjugated (changed) and it begins with

TO . For example: to have, to eat, to go, to live,

to speak etc.

Examples of Negative Sentences with Don’t

and Doesn’t:

You don’t speak Arabic.

John doesn’t speak Italian.

We don’t have time for a rest.

It doesn’t move.

They don’t want to go to the party.

She doesn’t like fish.

Questions in the Simple Present Tense

To make a question in English we normally

use Do or Does . It has no translation in

Spanish though it is essential to show we are

making a question. It is normally put at the

beginning of the question.

Affirmative: You speak English.

Question: Do you speak English?

You will see that we add DO at the beginning

of the affirmative sentence to make it a

question. We use Do when the subject is I, you,

we or they.

Affirmative: He speaks French.

Question: Does he speak French?

When the subject is he, she or it , we add DOES

at the beginning to make the affirmative

sentence a question. Notice that the letter S

at the end of the verb in the affirmative

sentence (because it is in third person)

disappears in the question. We will see the

reason why below.

We DON’T use Do or Does in questions that

have the verb To Be or Modal Verbs (can,

must, might, should etc.)

Word Order of Questions with Do and Does

The following is the word order to construct a

basic question in English using Do or Does .

Do/Does

Subject

Verb*

The Rest of the sentence

Do

I / you / we / they

have / need

want etc.

a new bike?

Does

he / she / it

*Verb: The verb that goes here is the base

form of the infinitive = The infinitive without

TO before the verb. Instead of the infinitive To

have it is just the have part.

Remember that the infinitive is the verb before

it is conjugated (changed) and it begins with

TO . For example: to have, to eat, to go, to live,

to speak etc.

Examples of Questions with Do and Does:

Do you need a dictionary?

Does Mary need a dictionary?

Do we have a meeting now?

Does it rain a lot in winter?

Do they want to go to the party?

Does he like pizza?

Short Answers with Do and Does

In questions that use do/does it is possible to

give short answers to direct questions as

follows:

Sample Questions

Short Answer

(Affirmative)

Short Answer

(Negative)

Do you like chocolate?

Yes, I do.

No, I don’t.

Do I need a pencil?

Yes, you do.

No, you don’t.

Do you both like chocolate?

Yes, we do.

No, we don’t.

Do they like chocolate?

Yes, they do.

No, they don’t.

Does he like chocolate?

Yes, he does.

No, he doesn’t.

Does she like chocolate?

Yes, she does.

No, she doesn’t.

Does it have four wheels?

Yes, it does.

No, it doesn’t.

However, if a question word such as who,

when, where, why, which or how is used in the

question, you can not use the short answers

above to respond to the question.

Posted in Langue anglaise pour les débutants/English language for | 1 Comment »

 


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